Qw'oqw'elith'a
Coqualeetza Cultural Education Centre

                                                    This site was updated June 07, 2010

Language is Culture, Culture is Language...

Coqualeetza Cultural Education Centre has the main purpose of promoting, preserving and interpreting Sto:lo Lifestyle, Language, Traditions, and Heritage, from the Sto:lo point of view.

Goals and Objectives:

Sto:lo People

The people of the Fraser Valley are the Sto:lo, which means "river" in Halq'emeylem.  Halq'emeylem is the language of the Sto:lo people.  According to anthropology, the Sto:lo are part of the larger cultural family called the Coast Salish.  Here along the Fraser River, the people are known as the Upper Sto:lo.

The people are organized in 24  Bands/First Nations within the Sto:lo territory which extends from Langley to 5 Mile Creek, north of Yale, on both sides of the Fraser River.  Due to appropriation of land by the Federal Government for public utilities such as hydro, telephone lines, gas lines, roads, railways, and land for honourably discharged veterans; there are 83 parcels of land or reserves allocated to the 24 Sto:lo First Nations.

Leadership is according to the Indian Act Elections Policy.  However, in the last decade, individual First Nations have adopted a local election code referred to as Custom Election Code which is an adaptation of the Hereditary Leadership.  Communities believe Custom Election is culturally relevant and directly addresses community needs.

A new honourary leadership role was introduced in the 1980s entitled "Grand Chief."  Initially, these individuals were accorded the title to honour their long service as Chief in their community or because they have served in some public capacity for the best interest of the people.

Since the 1990s, Sto:lo leaders have been actively developing a self-governance system and are in treaty negotiations with the Federal and Provincial Government. 

Lifestyles and traditions include fishing, wind-drying fish, types of fishing, hunting, governance, plant gathering, carving, Salish weaving, cedar root and bark basket making/textiles, ceremonies, rites of passage, etc.  Present day culture is a mixture of the old and the new.  Central to the way of life is family, respect for the wisdom of Elders, and an afinity to all Creation.

Spirituality involves origin stories, spirit dancing, Xa:ls, the transformer, beliefs, mask dances and modern religions.

The 24 Sto:lo First Nations formed the Coqualeetza Cultural Centre to provide cultural education services to their members.

The word Coqualeetza is anglicized from the Halq'emeylem word Qw'oqw'elith'a meaning "clubbing".  During the subsistence era, the Sto:lo washed clothing by clubbing it in the streams with a wooden mallet.  The site is also known as a cleansing place.

The seasonal activities were important to the Upper Sto:lo people.  Their way of life was based on their relationship with nature.

Before the arrival of Europeans, the Sto:lo had names for the months and the seaons, in their own language: Halq'emeylem.  The names of the months each had a meaning and do not follow the calendar months familiar to us today.

Sto:lo Year Information

The Sto:lo year follows the lunar year.  The dates change from year to year.  Before the coming of the white man the Sto:lo people of the Fraser Valley had names for the months and the seasons.  In Upper Sto:lo dialects of the Halq'emeylem Language the year, syilolem, began around the month of October.  Fall was called temhilalxw, winter was temxeytl' - cold time, spring was temqw'iles -  time for things to come up, and summer was temkw'okw'es - hot time.

The month was one complete cycle of the moon, about 29 days, and so it was called by the same name as the moon, skw'exo:s (in some dialects, lhqa:lts').  Each month or moon was said to begin on the first sliver of the moon that appeared after the "burnt out moon".  There were one or two people who kept track of the days and the months at Yale, B.C.  One man tied a knot in a string each day and a larger knot for each month.  Another man kept track by putting sticks in the ground.  Though the same quarter of the moon reappears every 29 1/2 days, the Sto:lo people probably took the events described in the names of the months as more important than rigid mathematical periods.  If the salmonberries weren't ripe till late May or early June of the year,  the moon of tem'elile (salmonberry time) might start on the closest first-sliver moon to that time rather than the first first-sliver moon in May.


Tempo:kw'   October 26 - November 24  
Time for Chehalis Spring Salmon

Xets'o:westel 
   November 25 - December 24   
Time to store away paddles for the winter

Meqo:s
   December 25 - January 22  
Fallen snow season

Peloqes   January 23 - February 20  
Torch Season

Temt'elemches   February 21 - March 22  
Time one's hands stick to things (from cold)

Welek'es 
  March 23 - April 20  
Little Frog Season

Temkwikwexel 
  April 21 - May 19  
Time for baby sockeye salmon

Tem'elile
   May 20 - June 17  
Salmonberry time

Temqoqo
   June 18 - July 17
High water time

Temqwa:l 
  July 18 - August 15  
Mosquito Time

Temtheqi 
  August 16 - September 14  
Sockeye salmon time

Temkw'o:lexw   September 15 - October 25  
Dog Salmon time


The names of the months each have a meaning.    The first month is Tempo:kw' which means "time for Chehalis Spring Salmon"; "tem" means time or season and po:kw' means Chehalis River spring salmon.  This type of salmon begins to run about October and is smoke dried in smokehouses during this month.

The second month is Xets'o:westel which means "time to store away canoe paddles"; xets' means store away (for winter), -o:wes means canoe paddles and tel means a device for doing something, in this case, time.  At this time, around November, the ice and snow is starting to make river travel by canoe hard or impossible, so the Sto:lo store away their canoes by turning them over or putting them in sheds; the paddles are usually stored under the canoe or inside.  Another name for this month is Telxits which means leaves are falling.

Meqo:s, around December, means fallen snow season; ma:qa is fallen snow and es means a periodic cycle of time.

The fourth month, around January, is called Peloqes which means torch season.  This is a time when torches, pelo:qel, are made out of dried sockeye salmon heads and used at night when spearing fish from canoes (torch lighting).  The fish can be seen by the light reflecting from their scales when the water is real clear, as it is in the end of January.  Today pitch torches or lanterns are used.

Very few elders know a name for the fifth month, around February; those that do call it Temtl'i:q'es as time to get jammed in (as a trap, a box, etc.) or Temt'elemches - time one's hand sticks to things (from the cold), tl'i:q' means get jammed in, get wedged in, get stuck, es means a periodic cycle of time, t'elem means stick to something, tses means on the hand.  Temtl'i:q'es probably refers to getting jammed in one's house because of snow and ice.

The sixth month, around March, is called Welek'es, little frog season because the welek' - little frog begins to croak about this time.  The same month is also called Qweloythi:lem - making music, because the birds start singing then.

The seventh month, around April, is called Temkwikwexel - time for baby sockeye salmon, by some people, kwikwexel is baby sockeye salmon.  Some call the month Lhemt'oles, which means spring showers in the eyes.

The next month is around May, is salmonberry time, Tem'elile.  These are the first berries out and signal the beginning of six or seven months of berry picking time.

The ninth month, around June, is Temqoqo: - high water time, when the rivers are high with melted snow water.  Another name, less common, is Temt'amxw - gooseberry time.

The tenth month, around July, is called by any of three names:  Temqwa:l - mosquito time; Epolestel - the tenth month; and at Yale it can be called Temchalhtel - time to wind dry fish.  Every year Sto:lo families would travel to Yale and camp for several weeks between Yale and Spuzzum to wind dry fish at this time.  Some families still do this.  This month is also the time when mosquitoes appear;  it is said they appear when the thimbleberries appear.  The third name for this month, tenth month, proves that the year is counted beginning from about October.

The eleventh month, around August, is called Temtheqi - sockeye salmon time because of the run of sockeye salmon bound for the Adams River which passes the Upper Sto:lo area in August.  The word sockeye comes from the Halq'emeylem word for sockeye salmon, stheqi, or the Halq'emeylem word for fish, sth'oqwi.

The last month is Temkw'o:lexw - dog salmon time, around September.  This month is called that name every year even though the kw'o:lexw only run every other year or every fourth year in great quantity.

The Sto:lo month was broken up into the phases of the  moon instead of weeks; we haven't found a word for week.  The phases of the moon which are given dates in the white man's calendar could be described as follows:   1. new moon - when the moon is all black  2. first quarter  - when the left half is black, actually a half moon whenever a date is given for it  3.  full moon  - when the moon is all lit up completely.  4.  last quarter  - when the right half is black, actually a half moon whenever a date is given for it.

Note: Accents on Halq'emeylem words are ommitted due to website limitations.